引用本文:邹兰欣,常辉,高明浩,崔凤静,张甲,徐娜,常新春.地面重型燃气轮机及其热障涂层的研究进展与发展趋势[J].中国表面工程,2024,37(1):18~40
ZOU Lanxin,CHANG Hui,GAO Minghao,CUI Fengjing,ZHANG Jia,XU Na,CHANG Xinchun.Research Progress and Development Trend of Ground Heavy Duty Gas Turbine and Its Thermal Barrier Coatings[J].China Surface Engineering,2024,37(1):18~40
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地面重型燃气轮机及其热障涂层的研究进展与发展趋势
邹兰欣1,2, 常辉1, 高明浩1, 崔凤静1, 张甲1, 徐娜1, 常新春1
1.中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016;2.中国科学技术大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110016
摘要:
国际公认的重型燃气轮机制造尖端技术之一—热障涂层技术,高温下通常面临 CMAS(CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2)腐蚀、 氧化、相变与烧结等问题,其抗 CMAS 腐蚀性等关键性能极大地影响涂层寿命,提高热障涂层的性能刻不容缓。对重型燃气轮机用热障涂层的研究进展与发展趋势进行全面总结与分析。首先介绍国内外重型燃气轮机的现状及发展趋势、热障涂层的系统结构、材料和几种典型的制备工艺,然后针对高温下燃气轮机热障涂层遇到的一些问题,对其隔热性、抗氧化性及抗热震性等关键性能的研究进展进行综述,最后分类详述热障涂层的 CMAS 腐蚀机理及其防护研究进展。综述热障涂层的几种关键性能,提出热障涂层的性能与其材料、结构及制备工艺密切相关,据此总结归纳提高热障涂层性能的方法,为热障涂层性能的提高提供参考依据,以弥补燃气轮机热障涂层领域目前缺乏这类综述文章的不足。
关键词:  燃气轮机  热障涂层  研究进展  CMAS 腐蚀
DOI:10.11933/j.issn.1007-9289.20230126001
分类号:TG174
基金项目:
Research Progress and Development Trend of Ground Heavy Duty Gas Turbine and Its Thermal Barrier Coatings
ZOU Lanxin1,2, CHANG Hui1, GAO Minghao1, CUI Fengjing1, ZHANG Jia1, XU Na1, CHANG Xinchun1
1.Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 , China;2.School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China,Shenyang 110016 , China
Abstract:
Thermal barrier coating technology, an internationally recognized cutting-edge technology for heavy-duty gas turbine manufacturing, is mainly used on the surface of the hot section components of gas turbines to enhance their efficiency by increasing the working temperature of the hot section components. However, at high temperatures, thermal barrier coatings frequently experience issues including CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) corrosion, oxidation, phase transitions, and sintering. Key properties such as CMAS corrosion resistance affect the coating life, which affects the efficiency of gas turbines. Therefore, this paper first presents the current situation and development trends of heavy-duty gas turbines worldwide. The background of the research on thermal barrier coatings is then presented; thermal barrier coatings are classified according to their different coating structures. The characteristics and properties of commonly used coating materials such as the ceramic top coat and bond coat materials are compared, and the principles, advantages and disadvantages of several typical preparation processes of thermal barrier coatings such as air plasma spraying, electron beam-physical vapor deposition, plasma spraying-physical vapor deposition, and the morphological characteristics of the prepared coatings are summarized and analyzed. Aiming at some challenges that are often encountered in thermal barrier coatings for gas turbines at high temperatures, such as oxidation, CMAS corrosion, among others, the importance of several key properties of thermal barrier coatings, such as thermal insulation, oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance, is emphasized, and these key properties are explained and their research progress is reviewed. Finally, focusing on the high-temperature CMAS corrosion resistance of thermal barrier coatings, the mechanism of CMAS corrosion in terms of the thermochemical and thermomechanical aspects is described, along with five protective research methods to improve the CMAS corrosion resistance of thermal barrier coatings: identifying and developing new ceramic top coat materials, doping and modifying thermal barrier coating materials, preparing a protective layer on the surface of the ceramic top coat, adopting a double-layer ceramic top coat structure, and optimizing the coating surface structure. Based on a summary of the research progress and development trends of heavy-duty gas turbines and their thermal barrier coating, the following conclusions are drawn. Compared with developed countries, there is still a wide gap in the manufacturing technology and maintenance level of heavy-duty gas turbines in China, which will be developed towards high parameters, high performance, low pollution, and large-scale in the future. In general, the thermal barrier coating is preferred in the form of a double-layer structure; the material is preferred to be 8YSZ and MCrAlY, and the preparation process is preferred for air plasma spraying. Despite the fact that thermal barrier coatings have been widely used with the rapid development of industry, traditional thermal barrier coatings have failed to meet the service requirements of next-generation heavy-duty gas turbines; therefore, improving the performance of thermal barrier coatings has become a key issue. The materials, structures, and preparation processes of thermal barrier coatings are critical for improving their performance. To ensure the safe operation of heavy-duty gas turbines at higher temperatures for a longer period of time, we should continue to search, design, and develop new thermal barrier coating materials with low thermal conductivity, good oxidation resistance, thermal shock resistance, and corrosion resistance, increase investments in the structural design research of thermal barrier coatings, regulate the structural parameters of thermal barrier coatings, and improve and develop new preparation processes for thermal barrier coatings. This paper reviews several key properties of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbines and proposes that the performance of thermal barrier coatings is closely related to their materials, structures, and preparation processes. Methods to improve the performance of thermal barrier coatings are presented, and there is a lack of such review articles to lead the field of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbines.
Key words:  gas turbine  thermal barrier coatings  research progress  CMAS corrosion
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