引用本文:陈登科,崔线线,苏琳,刘晓林,张力文,陈华伟.仿鱼类表皮减阻研究现状与进展*[J].中国表面工程,2023,36(5):14~36
CHEN Dengke,CUI Xianxian,SU Lin,LIU Xiaolin,ZHANG Liwen,CHEN Huawei.Research Progress and Development Trends of Drag Reduction Inspired by Fish Skin[J].China Surface Engineering,2023,36(5):14~36
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仿鱼类表皮减阻研究现状与进展*
陈登科1, 崔线线2, 苏琳3, 刘晓林2, 张力文2, 陈华伟2,4
1.鲁东大学交通学院 烟台 264025;2.北京航空航天大学机械工程及自动化学院 北京 100191;3.中国船舶集团有限公司系统工程研究院 北京 100094;4.北京航空航天大学生物医学工程高精尖创新中心 北京 100191
摘要:
舰船、飞机等高速运动表面的高效减阻技术仍是一项重大挑战。水下减阻是鱼类等高速游动生物长期进化形成的优势功能策略,揭示水下高速游动鱼类表皮结构特征或材质特性与减阻功能机制的相互关系,可为解决高速运动表面高摩擦阻力问题提供可行参考方案。首先以鲨鱼皮盾鳞结构和海豚弹性表皮为典型生物原型,简要介绍表皮独特结构特征和弹性材质特性,对金枪鱼表皮拓扑覆瓦鱼鳞结构特征和法向多层弹性材质特性进行总结,并介绍其他鱼类表皮的独特结构特征,进而介绍以鱼类表皮独特结构特征或材质特性为生物原型的减阻表面的仿生制造、减阻特性及减阻机理研究现状。最后,对仿生减阻表面在工程和生活中的应用进行简要阐述。提出以鱼类表皮为生物原型的仿生减阻表面的研究现状和发展方向,填补仿鱼类表皮结构特征或材质特性减阻领域目前缺少综述文章来引领的空白,可为进一步深入分析鱼类优异的水动力性能提供借鉴,并为构筑新型减阻防污表面提供参考。
关键词:  仿生表面  微观形貌  仿生制造  减阻  机理
DOI:10.11933/j.issn.1007-9289.20230128001
分类号:TH16;Q81
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51935001,51725501,T2121003,51905022);国家重点研发计划(2019YFB1309702)资助项目
Research Progress and Development Trends of Drag Reduction Inspired by Fish Skin
CHEN Dengke1, CUI Xianxian2, SU Lin3, LIU Xiaolin2, ZHANG Liwen2, CHEN Huawei2,4
1.College of Transportation, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 , China;2.School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 , China;3.CSSC Systems Engineering Research Institute, Beijing 100094 , China;4.Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 , China
Abstract:
Reducing energy consumption is consistently desirable, with the aim of avoiding aggravation of the global energy crisis. Creatures in nature have adapted to their surroundings as a result of biological evolution. Learning how nature creatures adapts to environmental challenges may help solve many challenges in engineering. Underwater drag reduction is a dominant functional strategy developed by the long-term evolution of high-speed swimming organisms such as fish, revealing the relationship between topography characteristics, material properties, and drag reduction functional mechanisms can provide a feasible reference scheme for solving the problem of high-friction resistance on high-moving surfaces. Based on this strategy, this review takes fish skin as a prototype, the unique structure characteristics of sharkskin and dolphin skin are briefly analyzed, before the topography characteristics and multilayered structure of tuna skin are revealed and summarized. The characterization results show that tuna skin has structural characteristics and mechanical properties that result from imbricated fish scales covered by a flexible epidermis layer and embedding in a flexible dermis layer. This structure could be one reason for tuna swimming faster than sharks and dolphins. As more topographical features of other fish skins have been discovered and characterized, some fish scales have been exhibited excellent drag reduction performance in varying conditions. The unique structure characteristics, material properties, and special function of fish skin can provide a useful source for scientific development, technological invention and creation, and engineering technological problems. Drag reduction surfaces inspired by these unique structures and material properties were fabricated using a variety of processing methods, and are summarized in this review. The drag reduction performance of different bionic surfaces differs due to various shapes which have been constructed on microscale or nanoscale surfaces, size dimensions, and material properties. Even so, the drag reduction mechanism of those bionic surfaces can be roughly divided into three categories. First, the drag reduction effect is brought about by the unique structure and its drag reduction mechanism is summarized as the structure effect. The unique structure has a direct influence on the characteristics of the near-wall flow field, such as the “water trapping” effect of the microcrescent array inspired by Ctenopharyngodon idelluse fish scales that can lower the velocity gradient and generate a fluid-lubrication film to reduce shear wall stress between solid and fluid interface. Second, the compliant mechanism is summarized in which the drag reduction effect is caused by a flexible or compliant surface. Typically, the compliant surface acts as a resilient energy-absorbing coating that can delay the boundary layer transitioning from laminar to turbulent flow. Finally, a composite mechanism type is proposed in which the drag reduction effect is brought by coupling of the flexible coating and the unique structure characteristics. The composite surface with unique structure coupling with functional coating not only has excellent drag reduction performance, but also has other useful functions such as antifouling and noise reduction. Those drag reduction mechanisms evolved in nature can provide new bionic drag reduction systems and provide inspiration for innovation to solve engineering problems. At the end of this review, the application of the bionic surfaces inspired by fish skin is briefly introduced. On this basis, the future development and application of bionic surface drag reduction technologies are prospected. Although has restriction development and application all sorts of factors, but with the continuous development of manufacturing technology and materials, infiltration and emergence of many scientific branches will become a trend in the field of bionic drag reduction. This review can serve as a foundation for an in-depth analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of fish as well as a new inspiration for drag reduction and antifouling.
Key words:  bionic surface  topography characteristic  bionic fabricate  drag reduction  mechanism
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