引用本文:林洁琼,吴明磊,刘思洋,周岩,谷岩,周晓勤.超声振动辅助切削SiCp/Al复合材料的加工机理及试验[J].中国表面工程,2024,37(2):182~198
LIN Jieqiong,WU Minglei,LIU Siyang,ZHOU Yan,GU Yan,ZHOU Xiaoqin.Processing Mechanism and Experiment of Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Cutting of SiCp / Al Composites[J].China Surface Engineering,2024,37(2):182~198
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超声振动辅助切削SiCp/Al复合材料的加工机理及试验
林洁琼1,2, 吴明磊1,2, 刘思洋1,2, 周岩1,2, 谷岩1,2, 周晓勤3
1.长春工业大学机电工程学院 长春 130012;2.吉林省微纳与超精密制造重点实验室 长春 130012;3.吉林大学机械与航空航天工程学院 长春 130025
摘要:
切削加工过程中材料损伤形式对加工表面质量会产生较大影响,现有仿真分析难以模拟真实颗粒失效行为,通过建立二维微观多相有限元模型能够深入了解材料损伤与表面质量的关系。基于常规切削(Conventional cutting,CC)与超声振动辅助切削(Ultrasonic vibration-assisted cutting,UVAC)两种加工方式,通过有限元仿真软件 Abaqus 对 20%SiCp / Al 复合材料的切削过程进行仿真模拟,阐释加工过程中刀具与工件的相互作用机理,并在同一参数下验证有限元仿真的准确性。通过设计单因素试验,对比两种加工方式及不同加工参数对切削力和表面粗糙度的影响规律,得出最佳加工参数组合,并对最佳加工参数下表面形貌进行分析。模拟和试验结果表明,SiC 颗粒断裂、颗粒耕犁、颗粒拔出以及 Al 基体撕裂是影响 SiCp / Al 复合材料加工质量的主要原因,刀具与颗粒不同的相对作用位置会产生不同的损伤形式。与常规切削相比,施加超声振动后可以有效抑制颗粒失效和基体损伤,使加工中的平均切削力(主切削力)降低 33%,工件已加工表面粗糙度值最大减小量为 531 nm,显著提高了表面质量。所建立的二维微观多相有限元模型,能够有效模拟铝基复合材料的加工缺陷和裂纹损伤问题, 对提高难加工材料的高质量表面制备有重要借鉴意义。
关键词:  超声振动辅助切削  SiCp / Al 复合材料  加工机理  表面质量  切削力
DOI:10.11933/j.issn.1007-9289.20230417001
分类号:TG51
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(U19A20104);吉林省高性能制造及检测国际科技合作重点实验室项目(20220502003GH)
Processing Mechanism and Experiment of Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Cutting of SiCp / Al Composites
LIN Jieqiong1,2, WU Minglei1,2, LIU Siyang1,2, ZHOU Yan1,2, GU Yan1,2, ZHOU Xiaoqin3
1.School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 , China;2.Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Micro-nano and Ultra-precision Manufacturing, Changchun 130012 , China;3.College of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 , China
Abstract:
SiCp / Al composites contain high hardness SiC particles and are unevenly distributed in the Al matrix, causing the two-phase material to exhibit non-cooperative deformation during processing, thus resulting in problems in conventional cutting force mutation, such as severe tool wear, low processing efficiency, and poor machining surface quality. The introduction of ultrasonic vibration-assisted cutting (UVAC) is an effective way of improving machining quality. The study of the form of particle damage and the material removal mechanism in UVAC is important. To reveal the machining mechanism underlying a 20%SiCp / Al composite material under UVAC conditions and to study the influence law of different process parameters on the cutting force and machining surface quality, a simulation model based on two-dimensional polygon random distribution particles was established using the finite element simulation software Abaqus. The microstructure, deformation, and failure of the SiCp / Al composites were simulated by considering the cohesive elements of particle fracture, matrix deformation, and tensile force between the particles and matrix. The dynamic cutting process of SiCp / Al composites was simulated for conventional cutting (CC) and UVAC, and the influence of different relative positions between the tool and particles on the particle removal behavior was analyzed. The experimental and simulated cutting forces obtained using CC and UVAC were compared using the same parameters, and the accuracy of the finite element simulation was verified. Through the design of a single-factor experiment, the effects of the two machining methods and different machining parameters on the cutting force and surface roughness were compared, the optimal combination of machining parameters was obtained, and the surface topography under the optimal machining parameters was analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that SiC particle fracture, particle plowing, particle pulling out, and Al matrix tearing are the main factors affecting the processing quality of SiCp / Al composites. Under both CC and UVAC processing conditions, the cutting force initially decreases and then increases as workpiece speed increases; the cutting force gradually increases with increasing feed rate, and then increases with increasing cutting depth. Different relative positions of the tool and particles produce different forms of damage. When the tool path passes through the middle of the SiC particle, the SiC particle is mainly removed in the form of particle fracture. When the tool path passes through the upper part of the SiC particles, the SiC particles are partially unstuck and deflected, and the particles are more easily pressed into the Al matrix. When the tool path passes through the lower half of the SiC particle, the SiC particle integrates with the tool, thereby changing its front angle. The application of ultrasonic vibrations can effectively inhibit the failure of SiC particles and matrix damage, reduce the fracture damage of particles during cutting, reduce the desticking phenomenon of particles, and stabilize the fractured particles in the matrix. Compared to CC, the average cutting force (main cutting force) in machining was reduced by 33%, and the maximum reduction in the machined surface roughness was 531 nm, which significantly improved the quality of the machined surface. The established two-dimensional microscopic multiphase finite element model can effectively simulate the processing defects and crack damage of aluminum matrix composites, reflect the real particle failure behavior during processing, and identify the mechanism underlying the effect of different relative positions between the tool and the particle on the particle removal behavior. The removal mechanism, surface morphology, and cutting force of the UVAC SiCp / Al composites were investigated by combining experiments and simulations. These results provide significant reference for improving the high-quality surface preparation of difficult-to-machine materials.
Key words:  ultrasonic vibration-assisted cutting  SiCp / Al composites  processing mechanism  surface quality  cutting force
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