引用本文:熊强,蔡伟明,路家斌,刘文涛,李卫中.抛光垫表面微细结构对抛光性能的影响试验[J].中国表面工程,2023,36(2):200~211
XIONG Qiang,CAI Weiming,LU Jiabin,LIU Wentao,LI Weizhong.Experiment on the Effect of Polishing Pad Surface Microstructure on Polishing Performance[J].China Surface Engineering,2023,36(2):200~211
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抛光垫表面微细结构对抛光性能的影响试验
熊强1, 蔡伟明1, 路家斌1, 刘文涛1, 李卫中2
1.广东工业大学机电工程学院 广州 510006;2.东莞市蓝宇金刚石磨具有限公司 东莞 523000
摘要:
抛光垫是影响抛光加工效率和表面质量的关键因素之一,但影响规律和作用机理尚不清晰。为研究抛光垫表面微细结构对抛光性能的影响规律,制作有、无固结磨料的表面六边形微细结构抛光垫,分别对 YG15 硬质合金、单晶 Si 和单晶 4H-SiC 三种硬度差异较大的工件进行抛光试验。结果表明:各抛光垫对不同硬度工件抛光效果的影响规律一致,随着抛光工件的硬度增大,各抛光垫的材料去除率(MRR)减小,表面粗糙度 Ra 增大。抛光垫内的固结磨料能将 MRR 提高 5~10 倍,但也会导致 Ra 增大 5~20 倍。抛光垫表面微细结构会使得抛光过程中有效接触面积 Ap和有效磨粒数 Ns减小而导致 MRR 下降,而抛光垫硬度的增加能够部分弥补抛光垫表面微细结构造成的影响,抛光工件硬度越大,弥补效果越好。增加游离磨料能够有效降低抛光后 Ra 并提高硬度较大工件的 MRR(上升约 8%),但对硬度较小工件的 MRR 有抑制作用(下降约 27%)。根据抛光试验结果,建立工件-磨料-抛光垫接触模型,深入分析抛光垫表面微细结构、表面硬度对不同硬度工件抛光 MRR 和表面质量的作用机理,为不同工件抛光时抛光垫的选择提供了理论基础。
关键词:  抛光垫  表面微细结构  工艺参数  材料去除率  表面形貌
DOI:10.11933/j.issn.1007-9289.20220720002
分类号:TG73;TG58;TQ164
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(52175385)和广东省自然科学基金(2022A1515011868)资助项目
Experiment on the Effect of Polishing Pad Surface Microstructure on Polishing Performance
XIONG Qiang1, CAI Weiming1, LU Jiabin1, LIU Wentao1, LI Weizhong2
1.School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 , China;2.Dongguan Lanyu Diamond Abrasive Product Company Limited, Dongguan 523000 , China
Abstract:
A polishing pad is an important component of the polishing process, and its performance is influenced by such factors as the material, surface texture, and structure. The surface pattern of the polishing pad stores and transports the polishing solution and carries away the polishing chips. The surface pattern of the polishing pad has a significant influence on the efficiency and surface quality of the polishing process, but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. To study the influence of the polishing pad surface microstructure on polishing performance, a surface hexagonal microstructure polishing pad with and without a consolidated abrasive was produced. Polishing experiments were performed on three types of workpiece with different hardnesses — YG15 cemented carbide, single-crystal Si, and single-crystal 4H-SiC — using a plain structured polishing pad (P1), an unconsolidated abrasive surface microstructure polishing pad (P2), and a fixed abrasive surface microstructure polishing pad (P3). Based on the experimental results, a workpiece–abrasive–polishing-pad contact model was established to analyze the mechanism of the polishing pad surface microstructure and surface hardness on the polishing material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality of workpieces with different hardnesses. The results show that the effects of the three polishing pads on the polishing effect of workpieces with different hardness values are consistent. As the hardness of the polished workpiece increases, the MRR of polishing decreases significantly, and the surface roughness Ra increases. The MRR is increased 5–10 times by the consolidated abrasive in the polishing pad, but the consolidated abrasive also leaves many scratches on the surface of the workpiece, while the workpiece surface roughness also increases 5–20 times. The microstructure of the polishing pad surface reduces the effective contact area Ap and effective number of abrasive grains Ns during the polishing process, resulting in a lower MRR for P2 than for P1. However, the increased hardness of the polishing pad increases the depth of cut hw of the abrasive, which compensates for the reduced MRR caused by the microstructure of the polishing pad surface. The harder the polished workpiece, the better the makeup effect. For P3, the addition of free abrasives to the polishing solution enables the smaller-particle-size free abrasives to remove trace amounts of scratch edge material, resulting in a reduction in the size of the scratch on the surface of the workpiece and reducing the surface Ra of the polished workpiece. At the same time, free-abrasive trace material removal improves the MRR of harder workpieces (an approximately 8% increase). However, for less hard workpieces, the free abrasive causes the load Fw on the consolidated abrasive to decrease, which in turn reduces the depth of cut hw of the consolidated abrasive and has an inhibiting effect on the polishing MRR (an approximately 27% decrease). According to the workpiece–abrasive–polishing-pad contact model of the polishing process, the surface microstructure of the polishing pad mainly affects the effective contact area Ap and the effective number of abrasive grains Ns in the polishing process. The surface hardness of the polishing pad and the hardness of the workpiece mainly affect the indentation depth hp of the abrasive in the polishing pad and the cutting depth hw of the abrasive in the polishing process. Small amounts of free-abrasive removal can improve the quality of the polished surface, but the mechanism of the effect on MRR is different for different hardness values. A comprehensive analysis of the surface microstructure of the polishing pads, surface hardness, and abrasive state on the surface material removal mechanism of the workpiece provides a theoretical basis for the selection of polishing pads for the polishing of different workpieces.
Key words:  polishing pad  surface microstructure  process parameters  material removal rate  surface morphology
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