引用本文:王成龙,梁真,万喆,亢宁,杜文林,朱金仪.真空蒸镀钙钛矿太阳能电池器件工艺研究进展[J].中国表面工程,2023,36(2):21~33
WANG Chenglong,LIANG Zhen,WAN Zhe,KANG Ning,DU Wenlin,ZHU Jinyi.Research Progress of Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated Technics by Vacuum Deposition[J].China Surface Engineering,2023,36(2):21~33
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真空蒸镀钙钛矿太阳能电池器件工艺研究进展
王成龙, 梁真, 万喆, 亢宁, 杜文林, 朱金仪
兰州交通大学国家绿色镀膜技术与装备工程技术研究中心 兰州 730070
摘要:
钙钛矿太阳能电池器件因其优异的材料性能已经取得最高 25.7 %的光电转换效率。常见的钙钛矿薄膜的制备方法分为溶液法和真空蒸镀法。其中真空蒸镀法凭借其无溶剂化的特点,具有环境污染小、膜层致密性高、生产效率高,以及较为容易实现大面积连续化高通量制备等优点,在钙钛矿太阳能电池器件制备领域具有独特优势。针对真空蒸镀法制备高质量钙钛矿薄膜的技术,对真空蒸镀的基本工作原理及应用于钙钛矿薄膜制备的真空设备系统进行介绍,并以钙钛矿太阳能电池光电转换效率为切入点,介绍基于真空蒸镀技术制备钙钛矿太阳能电池器件及优化其光电转换效率的研究进展。探究真空蒸镀设备改进策略(温控系统和蒸发源设置)、蒸镀工艺条件(投料量、蒸镀距离、蒸镀时间、室体内压力、薄膜退火温度及时间)、 基底材料极性对钙钛矿薄膜结晶度和晶粒尺寸的影响因素,为采用真空蒸镀技术制备具有高光电转换效率的钙钛矿太阳能电池器件提供重要的理论基础及研究思路。最后,总结真空蒸镀钙钛矿太阳能电池的工艺流程,从降低生产成本与提高生产效率的角度出发,提出连续化生产钙钛矿太阳能电池的构想,并对其商业化发展方向进行展望。
关键词:  真空蒸镀  设备及工艺优化  钙钛矿薄膜  太阳能电池
DOI:10.11933/j.issn.1007?9289.20220602001
分类号:TB79
基金项目:
Research Progress of Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated Technics by Vacuum Deposition
WANG Chenglong, LIANG Zhen, WAN Zhe, KANG Ning, DU Wenlin, ZHU Jinyi
National Engineering Research Center for Technology and Equipment of Green Coating,College of Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 , China
Abstract:
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have attracted considerable attention because of their excellent material characteristics, including an appropriate direct bandgap, high absorption coefficient, excellent carrier transport, and apparent tolerance to defects. The chemical structure of halide perovskites can be termed ABX3, where A, B, and C represent aromatic ammonium cations, divalent metal cations, and halogen anions, respectively. Owing to the significant efforts made by researchers, the certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached 25.7 %. Many processes, including solution- and vacuum-based methods, have been investigated for perovskite films. Among these, the solution-based method is simple; however, it is challenging to prepare PSCs on a large scale because of the excessive use of organic solvents, which results in environmental pollution. Vacuum deposition has many advantages in perovskite film preparation, including solvent-free, highly compact films, environmental friendliness, high productivity, and easy high-throughput large-area fabrication. Perovskite film preparation through the vacuum deposition technique mainly involves heating the precursors of organic (CH3NH3I) and inorganic (either PbI2 or PbCl2) in high-vacuum chambers to evaporate these precursors. To obtain organic-inorganic halide perovskite films with high quality and increased power efficiency, the proportion and evaporation rate of the precursors deposited on the target substrate need precise modulation. Additionally, the perovskite layer thickness significantly affects the final PCE of perovskite solar cell devices. Thicker perovskite film-based solar devices facilitate the harvest of more photons from sunlight; however, it makes separate transport of charge and holes more difficult. Therefore, the precise modulation of the layer thickness and stoichiometric ratio of the perovskite film is vital in vacuum deposition. However, it is challenging to monitor and control the deposition rate of organic precursors with low molecular weights (such as CH3NH3I) using quartz microbalance sensors. This can be attributed to the random diffusion of molecules inside the vacuum chamber and the difficulty in accumulating these precursors on the sensor surface. To obtain high-quality perovskite films using vacuum deposition, this review introduces the principle and basic structure of the vacuum deposition system. Vacuum deposition can be divided into single-, dual-, and multi-source processes based on the number of evaporation sources. Moreover, it can also be divided into flash evaporation, co-evaporation, and sequential evaporation processes. Recent advances in fabricating PSCs involved in vacuum deposition processes are discussed. For instance, the temperature-controlling system was optimized, and the evaporation source was installed in vacuum deposition equipment. Moreover, factors that affect the crystallinity, grain size, and final PCE performance of the prepared perovskite films were also investigated. These include precursor composition, the distance between the crucible and substrate, evaporation time, chamber pressure, and annealing temperature and time. Additionally, the surface polarity of the substrate material influences the nucleation, crystallization, and morphology in the vacuum deposition process. Furthermore, perovskite film composition is a significant factor that affects the PCE of PSCs and the long-term stability of PSCs. This review provides an important theoretical basis and research ideas for the preparation of PSCs with high PCE using vacuum deposition technology. Additionally, it introduces versatile fabrication methods that can be used to obtain high-performance and reproducible PSCs, which may push further improvements and commercialization of PSCs based on the vacuum deposition technique. Finally, the factors influencing vacuum deposition methods on the PCE of perovskite solar cell devices are comprehensively summarized, and the topic research is investigated in the field of manufacturing and commercially developing PSCs. In this review, the vacuum deposition of the perovskite, electronic and hole transport layers is proposed to achieve ceaseless, high-throughput, and large-area fabrication of PSCs with considerably lower cost, higher fabrication reproducibility, and excellent PCE.
Key words:  vacuum deposition  equipment and process optimization  perovskite films  solar cells
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